Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET)

Evidence shows that persons with disabilities in developing countries are less likely than their peers to attend school or gain work, and are more likely to live in poverty. Disability inclusive skills development initiatives such as Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) programs can lead to increased confidence and capacity to gain continuing paid work, and a positive impact on the economic situation of persons with disabilities, their families and communities.

Resources in this section explore the approaches, principles and practices, which can support effective disability inclusive TVET policy and programs.

See also: Livelihoods, Community Based Rehabilitation, Supporting participation at an individual level.

GIZ (2020) Guideline on how to mainstream inclusion of marginalised people in vocational education and training

This resource on holistic inclusive vocational and educational training has been developed by GIZ. This includes guidance around broad inclusion, of which disability inclusion is one area of focus. The chapters focus on introducing inclusive VET, concepts and inclusion theories, developing inclusion policies and inclusive practices, and inclusive labour markets and job centres.

International Labour Organization (2017) Including persons with disabilities in technical and vocational education and training: A guide for administrators and instructors to disability inclusion

This document was produced by ILO Bangladesh in collaboration with the Bangladesh Government Department of Technical Education. It is a guideline on disability inclusive technical and vocational education and training based on pilot programs in Bangladesh. Whilst targeted primarily at technical and vocational training institutions, it provides some good advice about how disability inclusion can be achieved within the TVET sector, relevant to a development context. The clear instruction on how training and education institutions can foster disability inclusion may inform program design decisions and be used as a tool to share with stakeholders.

International Labour Organization (2008) Recognizing ability: The skills and productivity of persons with disabilities: Literature review

This paper reviews evidence regarding the impact of policies and practices designed to support persons with disabilities in the achievement of their productivity potential in the formal and informal economies through skills training and workplace accommodations. It includes a number of illustrative case studies, and concludes with key messages emerging from the literature review which will be of particular interest to policy makers.

International Labour Organization (2012) TVET reform: Design an inclusive skills development program

This publication describes the European Union-funded Bangladesh TVET Reform Project. It investigates models of disability inclusive training, and describes collaborative efforts between government and the private sector, focusing on increasing access of persons with disabilities and women with low levels of education to skills development programs. This paper provides valuable insights to the design and implementation of disability inclusive TVET programs.

Kett M (2012) Skills development for youth living with disabilities in four developing countries

This paper is an in-depth analysis of key challenges and opportunities regarding skills development for youth with disabilities, outlining the extent of their participation in the labour market, and the barriers experienced. This paper informed development of the 2012 Education for All monitoring report, and provides a deeper exploration of the skills training opportunities which are available to youth with disabilities in China, Sri Lanka, Kenya and Sierra Leone. It uses case studies to illustrate practices which have led to sustainable employment opportunities and social inclusion for youth with disabilities. The paper provides policy recommendations which may inform policy and programming.

International Labour Organization (2013) The informal economy and decent work: A policy resource guide supporting transitions to formality

Chapter six of this guide provides an overview of strategies which support development of disability inclusive skills development and productive work options. Using case studies, the guide outlines the inherent challenges but also strategies for overcoming these.

UNESCO (2012) Education for All monitoring report – Youth and skills: putting education to work

This report provides an overview of progress towards the six Education for All goals, and towards spending on education to finance the goals, with a particular focus on the third goal, youth and adult learning needs. The report explores factors which impact on the participation of disadvantaged populations in skills development programs, including youth with disabilities, and suggests strategies for better meeting the learning needs of this population. This report provides useful information for the development of skills training programs, or programs which target youth.

This publication provides illustrative case study examples of disability inclusive vocational training and employment practices, and would be useful to stakeholders wishing to further understand the various ways in which disability inclusive TVET programs can be implemented.

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Picture of a young man from Brazil who is deaf, in a workshop using a lathe.

Photo: CBM

Young man working on a lathe: Vocational training in the Fundacao do Caminho.The Fundacao do Caminho is running a school for people who are Deaf, blind and deaf-blind, a vocational training centre and a CBR programme in a poor suburb of Alagoinhas, Brazil. Copyright: CBM